A SPECIAL ISSUE IN CELEBRATING 200 PENS AND PETAA PAPERS SINCE 1972

Connecting research and practice

Marcelle Holliday

This PETAA Paper is the 200th in a long line of research-based and highly practical publications designed to support teachers in improving their teaching practice in English and literacy. Appropriate to that moment, PETAA Paper 200 celebrates the breadth and depth of PETAA publications and shows how the resources PETAA produces support teachers as they design and manage their own professional learning and improve their classroom practice.

Often teachers experience the feeling that some of their students are not progressing as well as they would wish, and that their teaching practices are not producing the level of learning they hope for, but school life is so busy and there may not be time to attend to the problem in depth. This paper outlines a systematic process for teachers to address such concerns and deal with them thoroughly and purposefully. It shows how PETAA resources can form the foundation of teachers’ action research and support the ongoing process of continued and successful professional learning.

Since 1972, PETAA books, papers and highly focused professional learning conferences and sessions have been at the forefront in providing teachers with clear information about new teaching ideas, new processes and current research that is linked to knowledge of how students learn and how teachers can maximise the learning potential of their students.

As the largest professional teacher association in Australia, with a focus on primary teachers, PETAA is a national leader in the fields of English and literacies across the curriculum and has played a key role in supporting the implementation of new syllabuses and curriculum documents in Australia’s primary schools.


Teachers on PENs and PETAA Papers

PEN 95 ‘What is a functional model of language?’ by Robyn Ewing in 1994 has had the most remarkable and ongoing influence on me as an educator. When I first read this PEN, I was an early career classroom teacher in a small primary school in the Kimberley with mostly indigenous students. The clarity of the discussion of the functional model of language led me on a learning journey that continues today.

Marisa Kelly (WA)

Read the full text of this review >

By facilitating a two-way conversation between teachers and researchers, PETAA has ensured that relevant research into innovative and effective classroom practice is readily available to classrooms across Australia. Indeed, the first PETA PEN (in the series now called PETAA Papers), published in 1972, describes how to group students for effective learning — quite an innovative idea at the time.

Other titles that broke new ground from those early days include:

  • PEN 004: ‘Turning Kids on to Books’ by Anne Price and Pat Edwards (1972)
  • PEN 008: ‘Language learning while learning science’ by Judy Turner and Trevor Kruger (Pre 1979)
  • PEN 010: ‘Why ask? Your guide to good questioning’ by Brent Corish (Pre–1979)
  • PEN 045: ‘Children, teachers and computers’ by Tony Moore (1984)
  • PEN 067: ‘Children and writing in the electronic age’ by Toni Downes and Christine Hingerty (1988)
  • PEN 093: ‘Aboriginal English ’ by Diana Eades (1995 and republished in digital format in 2014)

Later we had:

  • PEN 107: ‘Matching books to children’ by Claire Wille (1996)
  • PEN 109: ‘Early steps towards critical literacy’ by Sue M Brown (1997)
  • PEN 118: ‘Explicit teaching: Focusing teacher talk on literacy’ by Christine Edwards-Groves (1999)

PEN 93

Above: Diana Eades, whose ground breaking paper on Aboriginal English was republished in digital format (link adjacent) in 2014

The Archival List of PENs and PETAA Papers provides an historical overview.

Petaa paper 195 ‘Talk Moves’, inspired me to video and reflect on my lessons enabling me to monitor student dialogue in the classroom. Providing helpful step by step examples, paper 195 guided my teaching pedagogy with positive student learning results and an increased confidence to experiment in the classroom.

Lynelle Davis

  • PEN 142: ‘Visual Literacy The coded language for viewing in the classroom’ by Alyson Simpson (2004)
  • PEN 155: ‘The REAL Framework: Student engagement and student self-assessment’ by Geoff Munns and Helen Woodward (2006)

And, more recently, in papers produced in both print and digital formats:

Foremost the sharing of teaching experiences is a gain that cannot be quantified. Even for those teachers who do not read the publications, just seeing them around is an excellent way for them to become cognisant with teaching movements, issues and directions.

Marie Fitzgerald (Tas)

There were also the wonderful occasional papers such as ‘Picture books: Who are they for?’ by the award-winning picture book writer and illustrator Shaun Tan (2006). Project 40 (2012–2014), a series of video essays by leading Australian academics on key educational issues of the 21st Century, encourages teachers to engage in a professional dialogue with colleagues as they interrogate their practice and knowledge.

This selection demonstrates how forward-looking PETAA (formerly PETA) has been, and still is, in identifying new and innovative ideas and approaches to teaching and learning. PETAA has always been in the vanguard of identifying new and emerging curriculum directions, and translating these into appropriate classroom teaching practices.

The very best of educators and writers from Australia and overseas have written for PETAA publications and presented at PETAA conferences. Teachers and school principals, university lecturers and researchers, children’s book authors, state and territory curriculum consultants and writers of the Australian Curriculum: all have used their expertise, knowledge and insights to place these inspiring and relevant publications into the hands of classroom teachers. In many cases, joint authorship has meant theoretical research findings of university lecturers have been explained and demonstrated by classroom teachers. In publishing these resources, PETAA demonstrates its belief in the power of teachers supporting teachers through shared knowledge and expertise and a focus on what works in the classroom. As Eileen Honan in ‘Teachers as researchers’, PETAA Paper 187, writes:

One of the advantages of belonging to a professional association such as PETAA is receiving regular updates on current research. … reading about research conducted in other schools, with other teachers, in other contexts may provide teachers with some ideas about how to improve their own practice.

PETAA Paper 187: ‘Teachers as researchers’ (member access required) by Eileen Honan (2012)

Using PETAA resources for focused professional learning

Powerful professional learning occurs when teachers reflect on their own teaching practice and how this affects what happens in their classroom. This process or reflection is enhanced by access to publications that provide clear information about new teaching ideas, new processes and recent research. The process is ongoing as teachers try ideas, read, reflect and learn from each other and from what happens in their classrooms. This process is often referred to as action research, a process of working collaboratively to solve real problems and produce new knowledge, improved practice and better student achievement.

As distinct from academic research, those involved in action research participate in an ongoing testing and monitoring of improvements in their practice. They work in a collaborative way to identify issues in their organisation and develop processes for improvement. In education, action research is also known as teacher research. It is one method teachers use for improvement in both their practice and their students’ learning outcomes. The central goal of action research is positive educational change.

Source: Action Research in Education Guidelines 2nd edition 2010 (.pdf 540 kB)  NSW Department of Education and Training

The suggested process that follows shows how teachers can use PETAA resources to actively work to improve areas of concern in their classrooms. It is interspersed with actual classroom vignettes demonstrating action research in progress. In employing this process, teachers:

  • identify a problem or issue to be tackled
  • make a plan for action
  • act on the plan
  • observe what happens and collect data
  • reflect on the data and plan for future action.

Naplan reading band scale (3–8)

Figure 1: Reflecting on NAPLAN results will reveal areas where your students are having difficulty

This can occur in a range of ways: You might be talking with colleagues and you jointly identify a common problem, or perhaps you assess samples of your students’ work and find an area of concern. You might access the work samples for your Year level on the Australian Curriculum website and see areas in which your students might improve, or you might look at school or national assessment data and recognise a problem (Figure 1).

Whatever the problem, this becomes the starting point for your thinking and action. Identify exactly what the area of concern is and try to narrow your topic rather than attempt too broad an area of action.

In her Year 6 class, Jacquie is aware that some students have difficulty understanding the texts they are reading. Each week she gives them a short extract from their novel with some literal and inferential comprehension questions – but some students find it difficult to answer the questions correctly – especially the inferential ones. Jacqui notices this is evident also in the students’ discussions and responses to the texts. She checks the NAPLAN results from the previous year and her suspicions are confirmed; she decides that she has to do something to improve her students’ reading comprehension. She talks with the other Year 6 teachers, Rob and Amina, and together they look at last year’s NAPLAN results for all their students, paying particular attention to how their students answered the different types of comprehension questions. They agree that their classes have the same problem. So, together they decide to embark on an Action Research project.

Teacher at a table with two students

Figure 2: Teachers know when their students are having difficulty with a concept or skill

Make a plan for action

At the onset, teachers work together with colleagues to plan what they might try in the classroom. Search as widely as you can for ideas and information about the area you have identified. For example:

  • use PETAA publications and other resources to identify possible options for action
  • go to the Australian Curriculum website and look for information about the area you are working in
  • search online for teaching ideas and resources, but be aware that not all of these will comply with the Australian Curriculum
  • look at video clips in the work samples section of the Australian Curriculum website to see teachers and students working in classrooms
  • log on to the Scootle website to find resources that will work in your classroom
  • tell other teachers at your school what you are doing and ask for ideas.

Work out how the ideas you find can be implemented in your classroom. Consider trying to arrange a mentor or someone to act as a sounding board; this could be an experienced teacher at your school or another school, a consultant or a lecturer from a university. Make a timeframe for the changes you want to try. Before you start to make changes, collect samples of your students’ work in the specific area you are researching and use these as a starting point from which to measure how successful your intervention is.

Plan:

  • the specific teaching strategies you will try a time frame for action
  • the resources you will need
  • how you will collect evidence of student achievement
  • the dates of regular meetings with your colleagues.

Jacqui, Rob and Amina agree to spend two weeks researching reading comprehension. Jacquie searches ‘comprehension’ on the PETAA website and finds that there are several PETAA Papers that focus on Reading comprehension. These include:

Rob searches ‘comprehension’ more broadly and finds a very helpful document in Teaching Comprehension Strategies (.pdf 490 kB) from the NSW Department of Education, that describes several important strategies and how to implement them.

Amina searches for resources students can use. She finds several Teaching/Learning units on the PETAA website suitable for Year 6 and identifies the comprehension focus in them. She also accesses Scootle and identifies several learning resources that can be used by students working individually, or in groups on computers in the classroom, including:

  • Catch the Thief
  • Space Rescue
  • World Wonders
  • Digital Story
  • Finish the Story
  • and Super Stories.

As well, Jacquie, Rob and Amina search for children’s literature that will appeal to their students. They consult the PETAA publication, Reading under the covers (Simpson, 2008) and the Children’s Book Council of Australia website, as well as the NSW Premier’s Reading Challenge list of books for Year 6. They search the school library and reading resources to identify copies of children’s literature that will engage and challenge their students and provide a good basis for their comprehension lessons. They choose Mahtab’s story (Gleeson, 2008), also the focus text for a PETAA unit of work, to begin; later they will choose suitable factual texts.

They decide to focus on the explicit teaching of comprehension skills, in particular: using prior knowledge finding specific information making inferences.

They also decide that they will focus on explicit teaching strategies and, in particular, the use of teacher modelling, guided reading and independent student practice. Together they plan their first group of lessons and gather the resources (Figure 3). They construct a simple recording sheet that allows them to document what they did and how students responded and they agree to collect samples of students’ work.

A group of teachers with materials at a round table

Figure 3: Planning the intervention takes time but it is a crucial step

Act on the plan

Consider what has been gained through researching your topic. Begin by putting one or more changes into practice in your classroom and document what happens. Discuss with your colleagues and modify what you are doing, if necessary. In other words, do not pursue something that is not working.

Amina, Jacquie and Rob agree to begin by reading aloud from the book to their students, pausing to employ ‘think-alouds’ to show students how a reader might think while they are reading. For example, they read the introductory section of Chapter 1 of Mahtab’s Story, pausing at the rhetorical questions ‘Would they ever get there? Would it ever be over?’ Students are invited to make personal connections to times when they have experienced these feelings and to infer what these questions might mean in the context of the story. They use ideas from PETAA Paper 169: ‘Teaching and learning experiences in an effective reading, program’, by Diane Snowball.

They then explore slightly different ideas.

Amina decides to try whole-class modelled reading where she demonstrates to students how to identify prior knowledge and make inferences about a section of the book. In this case she focuses on what it might be like to feel incredible fear. Amina models how to make an inference by using prior knowledge and combining this with what is in the text. For example, together the class reads Chapter Two where Mahtab and her family are forced to flee their home in Afghanistan. After discussing what it might be like to have no option but to leave your home, the class focuses on three characters, Mum, Mahtab and Farhad. Amina shows students how the text from this section gives clues that allow us to infer what these characters are feeling. For example, ‘Mahtab shivered. She tried to stretch. Her back ached and her neck was sore. Grandma would be awake now.’ ‘Tears filled his eyes. As they streamed down his cheeks, he pressed his hand to his mouth and was silent.’

Jacqui uses modelled reading as well. With Jacqui leading, the class reads the first chapter, stopping frequently to talk about the characters, their actions and feelings. Then Jacqui introduces a cloze passage she has constructed from the text using ideas from PETAA Paper 174 ‘Cloze encounters’ by Paul Dufficy. First she models how to complete a cloze passage by reading the whole text then going back sentence by sentence to try out different word options for the first three or four blank spaces. Jacqui demonstrates how reading a sentence aloud and discussing it helps to find an appropriate word. She chooses some incorrect options and discusses why they are not a good fit for the meaning of the sentence. She shows how monitoring the storyline builds the reader’s knowledge and helps them to select a suitable word. She then asks students to work in pairs to complete the cloze, discussing their answers and justifying their choices.

Rob implements Literature Circles, taking ideas from PETAA PAPER 197 ‘Responding to literature: Talking about books in Literature Circles’ by Alyson Simpson. He decides to ask students to discuss how Mahtab’s family is similar or different from their own. First the class reads Chapter One and then Rob models how to scan the text for details of family life and relationships. They identify sections of the text which provide information about the roles and relationships of various family members. Rob asks students to form into Literature Circle groups and provides a discussion focus for each group.

Observe what happens

Identify what happens as a result of your action. Gather assessment information and compare it with what students could do before the intervention began. Using the information you have gathered, look for evidence of student improvement. Do not forget to use your students as a rich source of information. Ask them what they have learned, what is working for them and what difficulties they find. You might want to video them while they participate in activities such as small group discussions to assist your analysis.

As Jacqui, Rob and Amina begin implementing their plan they make notes at the end of each lesson to record how students responded and which students had difficulty with the tasks. They also record any modifications they make to what they had originally planned. As well, they collect the written work that students produce as a result of the new teaching plan. Jacquie develops the strategy of pausing frequently during a lesson to check that all students are on board. Amina uses a class list for each lesson, making notes on each student as they work on group or independent tasks. Rob gives his students a written survey asking detailed questions about their experience of Literature Circles and what they have learned.

Reflect on the data

By looking at the data you have gathered during the first phase of the intervention you can see what is working well and what is not. Be specific about what you think and use evidence to support your opinions. There will probably be questions that are still unanswered, areas where clear conclusions are not yet available. Build these into your future action. Take notes about your conclusions and record these as a set of ‘findings’. Consider how you will use what you have learnt. Discuss what is working and what needs to be modified to improve your teaching and your students’ responses.

Rob, Amina and Jacquie meet after two weeks to discuss what has happened so far. They are impressed by how much their students have gained from their reading aloud and ‘think-aloud’ strategy. They look through Amina’s students’ answer sheets and realise that although most of the students were able to infer the feelings of the child characters many were less sure about those of the mother and father. They realise that the thoughts and motivations of the adults are less easy for students to infer than those of children like themselves.

Rob’s students’ surveys show that they are enthusiastic about Literature Circles but that he needs to provide more support for students to assist them in taking on Literature Circle roles. Jacquie looks at the notes she took while students were completing the cloze passage and realises that some of her students required significant help with this task.

Plan future action

Think about, ‘What next?’ Based on what you have found in the first round of your action research, plan to take the next step in your research. Devise the next step in your program that will lead you and your students onto the next phase of improvement. This might include:

  • a new teaching strategy
  • a new classroom management strategy
  • refinement of strategies you are already using
  • ways to collect data.

Think about which students may need more support and scaffolding and consider how tasks can be differentiated to cater for the varying learning needs of students in your class.

Rob, Amina and Jacquie each agree to modify their teaching to take their observations into account. Amina suggests that their students need more explicit information about the learning goal of each task — what exactly they are meant to be focusing on as they engage with a task.

Rob decides to use the ‘fishbowl’ strategy to model Literature Circle roles for his class. This will involve the class sitting in a circle while a small group forms a Literature Circle in the centre. With Rob’s ‘coaching’, the Literature Circle will enact their discussion with the rest of the class watching. Then each Literature Circle will form and conduct their own discussion. Rob also decides to provide discussion cards for each group.

Jacqui realises that her teaching should involve more modelling and demonstration so that students know exactly what they are to do, and what the learning goal for each task is. She also realises that she needs to differentiate the learning tasks for some students so that the tasks truly match their learning needs.

Amina finds an after-school professional learning workshop on reading comprehension that PETAA is offering and they all decide to attend.

Jacquie suggests that, to find out how focused and explicit their teaching is, it would be helpful to observe each other’s lessons and provide feedback. They construct a format for recording the observations. Rob suggests that they also video the lesson. Everyone agrees as it will enable them to reflect more deeply on their practice.

Why colleagues can give you the best feedback

One of the best ways to focus on what happens in your classroom is to have someone else observe your lesson and take notes. A fresh pair of eyes can make all the difference to discovering what is happening in the interactions between you and your students and between students and their peers. This is a very effective form of professional learning that can improve teaching practice and student performance. Go to the Education World website to read about the advantages of teachers observing teachers.

Planning

By deciding beforehand what is to be observed, teachers can target the observation to their own learning goals. Plan the lesson observation by working out with your colleague what the lesson will be and what you want your colleague to look for. Then, set a small number of observation targets, for example, teachers can identify students who are disengaged; find out how their patterns of interaction affect what students do; learn which students they spend most time with and see which teaching strategies are working well.

Observing

During the observation, the teacher conducts the lesson as normal while the observer takes notes or, perhaps, makes a video. The following video can help you see this part of the process in action.

Reflecting

By discussing the observation afterwards, teachers can gain a new perspective on their classroom dynamics and the effectiveness of their teaching strategies. After the lesson observation, have a peer conference to look at the results and discuss what this means for your teaching and classroom management. Discuss possible solutions to any problems and new or revised strategies you might try.

Some points to remember

  • You know your students better than anyone else, so trust your judgement.
  • Every class is different so something that works for someone else might not work in your class.
  • Give your action time to start showing results — one or two weeks is not enough — progress is made in small steps.
  • Keep searching for resources such as PETAA Papers, books, resources and professional learning sessions to provide answers to some of your tricky problems.
  • It is not just what you observe that is important, but what these observations tell you about your students’ progress and achievement.
  • Keep looking at the assessment data you gather to identify signs of student improvement and areas for further teaching.

Conditions that foster professional learning

One of the reasons that action research is so successful is that it employs conditions that optimise teacher learning. These learning conditions, defined by Dr Royce Holliday in his PhD thesis ‘Teachers as learners: A case study of conditions that promote teachers’ professional learning’, work together to build an effective framework that enhances learning. These conditions are not external to the learner. They optimise learning because each condition strengthens all the others. Teachers become their own researchers — focusing on their own lived experience of the classroom. By using PETAA publications as their key resource, teachers can work together, employing these conditions to optimise their professional learning.

These conditions are described as the S-P-A-C-E model of learning

SELF— the learner feels positive about themselves as learners. It involves feeling confident and competent and includes a sense of self worth.

PERSONAL MEANING — the learner makes sense in their own way of what they learn and how they learn. It involves reflecting on past learning but especially critical reflection on present learning and professional practice.

ACTION — the learner tries new ideas in real circumstances. It involves experimentation and refinement of teaching practices as an essential part of successful learning.

COLLEGIALITY — learners learn from, with and for each other. It involves working in formal and informal groups and encouraging and respecting fellow professional learners.

EMPOWERMENT — the learner feels a sense of control and ownership over their learning. It involves taking ultimate responsibility for their own learning and making their own informed decisions.

Finding PETAA publications to support your action research

Teachers can tap into the many resources that PETAA has to offer to support their professional practice. Indeed, a history of the progress that has been made in pedagogical theory and practice can be traced through PETAA publications. Below is a list of some of the resources available, categorised by topic for easy search and retrieval.

Talking and listening

Reading

Children’s literature

Writing

Grammar

Multimodal texts and new literacies

Technology

Assessment and evaluation

  • PEN148: ‘Using rubrics to enhance learning and self-assessment’ by Wendy Bean (2005) ~ In members archive
  • PEN144: ‘Is there a role for self-evaluation in the classroom?’ By Kathleen Hill (2004) ~ In members archive
  • Note that topics related to assessment and evaluation are addressed in broad a number of PETAA publications

Student diversity

Literacy in other curriculum areas

Models, theories and teaching approaches

About the author

Marcelle Holliday has many years experience working with teachers as they pursue their professional learning in the areas of English and literacy. She has contributed to several PETAA publications and has been involved as a writer for the Australian Curriculum: English. Her extensive collection of PETA Pens begins with PEN Number 2.

References and sources

How this content relates to AITSL teacher standards

Standard 2: Know the content and how to teach it

  • 2.1.2 Proficient Content and teaching strategies of the teaching area. Apply knowledge of the content and teaching strategies of the teaching area to develop engaging teaching activities.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using a Dictagloss to support EAL/D students

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Building the field in science to assist students to make connections

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Developing social media profiles to build and represent content knowledge in geography

  • 2.1.3 Highly Accomplished Content and teaching strategies of the teaching area. Support colleagues using current and comprehensive knowledge of content and teaching strategies to develop and implement engaging learning and teaching programs.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Strategies for composite language classes

AITSL Certification Evidence: Developing a Cooperative Reading program to address underachievement and disengagement with reading in upper primary

  • 2.1.4 Lead Content and teaching strategies of the teaching area. Lead initiatives within the school to evaluate and improve knowledge of content and teaching strategies and demonstrate exemplary teaching of subjects using effective, research-based learning and teaching programs.
  • 2.5.2 Proficient Literacy and numeracy strategies . Apply knowledge and understanding of effective teaching strategies to support students’ literacy and numeracy achievement.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Improving sentence structure knowledge using oral language in Year 1

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using storyboards to develop multimodal texts

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Achieving multiple literacy outcomes through developing and composing multimodal texts

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Developing early literacy through explicit connections between meaning in text, oral language and image

  • 2.5.3 Highly Accomplished Literacy and numeracy strategies. Support colleagues to implement effective teaching strategies to improve students’ literacy and numeracy achievement.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using reciprocal teaching to improve reading with Year 3 and 4 students

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using Strategies Reading Action to investigate characters in texts

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Explicit teaching of high frequency words through big books

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Modelling focus group teaching in literacy

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Collegiate discussions to improve teaching in literacy

AITSL Certification Evidence: Developing a Cooperative Reading program to address underachievement and disengagement with reading in upper primary

  • 2.5.4 Lead Literacy and numeracy strategies. Monitor and evaluate the implementation of teaching strategies within the school to improve students’ achievement in literacy and numeracy using research-based knowledge and student data.

Standard 3: Plan for and implement effective teaching and learning

  • 3.3.2 Proficient Use teaching strategies. Select and use relevant teaching strategies to develop knowledge, skills, problem solving and critical and creative thinking.
  • 3.3.3 Highly Accomplished Use teaching strategies. Support colleagues to select and apply effective teaching strategies to develop knowledge, skills, problem solving and critical and creative thinking.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Digital professional learning on the ethical use of information

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Professional learning in action — Ethical use of information

  • 3.3.4 Lead Use teaching strategies Work with colleagues to review, modify and expand their repertoire of teaching strategies to enable students to use knowledge, skills, problem solving and critical and creative thinking.
  • 3.6.2 Proficient Evaluate and improve teaching programs. Evaluate personal teaching and learning programs using evidence, including feedback from students and student assessment data, to inform planning.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Evaluating teaching programs that support early language and literacy development

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using data to improve differentiation in reading groups

  • 3.6.3 Highly Accomplished Evaluate and improve teaching programs. Work with colleagues to review current teaching and learning programs using student feedback, student assessment data, knowledge of curriculum and workplace practices.
  • 3.6.4 Lead Evaluate and improve teaching programs. Conduct regular reviews of teaching and learning programs using multiple sources of evidence including: student assessment data, curriculum documents, teaching practices and feedback from parents/ carers, students and colleagues.

Standard 5: Assess, provide feedback and report on student learning

  • 5.4.1 Graduate Interpret student data. Demonstrate the capacity to interpret student assessment data to evaluate student learning and modify teaching practice.
  • 5.4.2 Proficient Interpret student data. Use student assessment data to analyse and evaluate student understanding of subject/content, identifying interventions and modifying teaching practice.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Improving teaching using data about student learning

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Moderating student work with colleagues to identify next steps for teaching and learning

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Developing intervention strategies using ILPs to support student achievement

  • 5.4.3 Highly Accomplished Interpret student data. Work with colleagues to use data from internal and external student assessments for evaluating learning and teaching, identifying interventions and modifying teaching practice.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Analysing student work to identify strengths and areas for development in writing

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using whole school data to identify trends and implement strategies for persuasive writing

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Selecting, using and analysing formative and summative assessment data to support individualised learning

AITSL Certification Evidence: Developing a Cooperative Reading program to address underachievement and disengagement with reading in upper primary

  • 5.4.4 Lead Interpret student data. Co-ordinate student performance and program evaluation using internal and external student assessment data to improve teaching practice.

Standard 6: Engage in professional learning

  • 6.1.1 Graduate Identify and plan professional learning needs.Demonstrate an understanding of the role of the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers in identifying professional learning needs.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using and adpating resources to support student learning

  • 6.1.2 Proficient Identify and plan professional learning needs. Use the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers and advice from colleagues to identify and plan professional learning needs.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using feedback to set teaching goals and identify professional learning needs

  • 6.1.3 Highly Accomplished  Identify and plan professional learning needs. Analyse the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers to plan personal professional development goals, support colleagues to identify and achieve personal development goals and pre-service teachers to improve classroom practice.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Quality placements for pre-service teachers

  • 6.1.4 Lead Identify and plan professional learning needs. Use comprehensive knowledge of the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers to plan and lead the development of professional learning policies and programs that address the professional learning needs of colleagues and pre-service teachers.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using the standards to frame conversations and plans for teacher practice

  • 6.2.1 Graduate Engage in professional learning and improve practice. Understand the relevant and appropriate sources of professional learning for teachers.

Illustration of Practice: Using professional learning to improve teaching with ICT resources

  • 6.2.2 Proficient Engage in professional learning and improve practice. Participate in learning to update knowledge and practice, targeted to professional needs and school and/or system priorities.
  • 6.2.3 Highly Accomplished Engage in professional learning and improve practice.Plan for professional learning by accessing and critiquing relevant research, engage in high quality targeted opportunities to improve practice and offer quality placements for pre-service teachers where applicable.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Quality placements for pre-service teachers

  • 6.2.2 Proficient Engage in professional learning and improve practice. Participate in learning to update knowledge and practice, targeted to professional needs and school and/or system priorities.
  • 6.2.3 Highly Accomplished Engage in professional learning and improve practice.Plan for professional learning by accessing and critiquing relevant research, engage in high quality targeted opportunities to improve practice and offer quality placements for pre-service teachers where applicable.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Quality placements for pre-service teachers

  • 6.2.4 Lead Engage in professional learning and improve practice. Initiate collaborative relationships to expand professional learning opportunities, engage in research, and provide quality opportunities and placements for pre-service teachers.
  • 6.3.1 Graduate Engage with colleagues and improve practice. Seek and apply constructive feedback from supervisors and teachers to improve teaching practices.
  • 6.3.2 Proficient Engage with colleagues and improve practice. Contribute to collegial discussions and apply constructive feedback from colleagues to improve professional knowledge and practice.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Collegial discussions to improve literacy outcomes in Year 1

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Classroom observation, video review and discussion with colleagues to improve teaching practice

  • 6.3.3 Highly Accomplished Engage with colleagues and improve practice. Initiate and engage in professional discussions with colleagues in a range of forums to evaluate practice directed at improving professional knowledge and practice, and the educational outcomes of students.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Leading professional learning through school wide classroom observations structures

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Improving teaching practice through multifaceted professional learning approaches

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Collegial discussions to unpack teaching strategies prior to teaching

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Mentoring for leadership

  • 6.3.4 Lead Engage with colleagues and improve practice. Implement professional dialogue within the school or professional learning network(s) that is informed by feedback, analysis of current research and practice to improve the educational outcomes of students.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using educational research to engage in professional dialogue

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Guided professional learning using action research and inquiry

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Collaborative professional learning communities across schools

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Leading professional learning in Asia Literacy

  • 6.4.1 Graduate Apply professional learning and improve student learning. Demonstrate an understanding of the rationale for continued professional learning and the implications for improved student learning.

AITSL Illustration of Practice: Seeking professional learning

  • 6.4.2 Proficient Apply professional learning and improve student learning. Undertake professional learning programs designed to address identified student learning needs.
  • 6.4.3 Highly Accomplished Apply professional learning and improve student learning. Engage with colleagues to evaluate the effectiveness of teacher professional learning activities to address student learning needs.
  • 6.4.4 Lead Apply professional learning and improve student learning. Advocate, participate in and lead strategies to support high-quality professional learning opportunities for colleagues that focus on improved student learning.