Using children’s picture books to support EAL/D students

Janet Fellowes

Australian society comprises people who speak different languages as well as various dialects of English. More than one fifth (21%) speak a language other than English in the home (ABS 2016). In fact, there are over 300 separately identified languages other than English spoken in Australian homes. Home languages comprise Australian Indigenous languages (traditional Indigenous languages, Creole and Aboriginal English) or one of many different languages from Europe and Asia (Fellowes & Oakley, 2014).

Teacher reading a picture book to students

Australian classrooms reflect this reality with many students speaking at home a language other than English and learning English as an additional language or dialect (EAL/D). Thus Australian educators need to have the knowledge to successfully attend to the linguistic and cultural needs of their students.

This paper explores the value of using quality picture books in the English language classroom. It seeks to draw together a number of theoretical and pedagogical principles for the teaching of English as an additional language or dialect (EAL/D) together with the classroom use of picture books. It examines the features and qualities of picture books, highlighting what makes them a relevant resource for working with EAL/D students in respect of their English language acquisition.

Children’s literature refers to books written for children from very young to adolescence (Chen & Squires, 2011). It encompasses a wide range of genres or types which include stories poetry, verse, myths, fables, legends, science fiction, biographies, information books, concept books and even wordless picture books (Temple, Martinez & Yokota, 2006). However, the focus of this paper is the picture book where both written language and illustrations work together to generate meaning.

The relevance of picture books for working with EAL/D students is highlighted when considering their attributes. Temple et al. (2006), suggest that quality children’s books feature the use of clear but not overly complex language, precise words and informative descriptions that focus on the characters and their actions. They generally have a straightforward storyline with a mostly linear sequence (Temple et al., 2006, pages 9 – 10).

While picture books are primarily a source of enjoyment and pleasure they can also serve as a medium for students’ language learning and support and enhance their understanding of the culture of the language they are acquiring (Chen & Squires, 2011). Additionally, when picture books echo students’ family culture, social experiences, values and beliefs they can function to strengthen their sense of identity and security.

Related texts

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Project 40: Literacy as diversity and equity , video and essay by Professor Joseph Lo Bianco

The reading aloud of picture books provides an opportunity to develop EAL/D students’ knowledge of the linguistic code of English (Chen, 2012) while enjoying the stories themselves. It provides exposure to English language forms within a real language context and emphasises the pronunciation of words and the rhythm and intonation of the language. It allows for students to notice language and the way it is used to achieve its storytelling purpose. Because it is a meaning-focused context the students are provided with an opportunity to understand the relationship between form and meaning.

Good quality picture books should use well-formed sentences and should provide students access to a wider range of words than would occur in everyday conversations. The context of the stories together with the illustrations provide useful support for students’ understanding. They can be read repeatedly thus extending the students’ understanding of the language they feature.

Picture books are not just for the very young, the variety available with a wide range of topics and interests mean choices can be made about their suitability for a group of students regardless of age. They can include different levels of linguistic complexity and feature mature content and themes without necessarily involving complex language.

The efficacy of using quality picture books for working with EAL/D students is considered in relation to some important principles of language teaching and learning which include:

  1. Language is best learned when a communicative approach to language teaching is used, and effective language learning for EAL/D students requires:
  2. they receive comprehensible language input
  3. consideration of affective factors
  4. learning about the culture in which the language takes place
  5. acknowledgement and use of the student’s first language.

1— Language is best learned when a communicative approach to language teaching is used

Communicative language teaching (CLT) involves EAL/D students being provided with real opportunities to use the English language in all its forms for the purpose of communication. The principal focus should not be on students learning about the language as a system but on them developing competency in using the language to achieve a diverse range of communication objectives. Language knowledge is still important though in CLT, it is developed as students seek to negotiate meaning in different social settings (Larsen- Freeman, 2000). The emphasis is on meaning and on students’ endeavours to convey and interpret meaning in authentic communicative situations (Brown, 2007; Hiep, 2007; Hedge, 2000).

New language knowledge is better integrated into EAL/D students’ long term memory and more easily retrieved for future use when their learning involves the use of English for practical communicative purposes (Long, 2003). Additionally, it is suggested that students will produce more advanced language than would be likely in alternative language learning situations (Richards, 2006, Mackey, 1999).

At the heart of CLT is the idea of authenticity where learning activities involve language that mirrors its real or natural use in an everyday context (Richards, 2006; Hedge, 2000). The oral and written texts at the centre of learning activities should feature ‘real’ language that is not contrived nor artificially controlled in relation to grammar or vocabulary. Considering an EAL/D students’ current language level in relation to the choice of text and the language demands it presents is also critical.

All things considered it seems that the reading aloud of picture books provides a fitting context for EAL/D students to acquire and learn English language. Reading aloud to students is an authentic language use involving students’ listening for the purpose of understanding and enjoying a story. It is also a context in which students can be well supported to achieve communicative success. A picture book, suitably chosen for the EAL/D class, will contain pictures that carry a good deal of ‘narrative responsibility’ (Birketveit & Rimmereide, 2017, page 102). When the pictures work together with the language to present the story some of the linguistic processing that would otherwise be needed to achieve comprehension is obviated (Bland & Lutge, 2013).

Picture books provide a focal point for related language experiences which reinforces the notion of communication being a holistic process that regularly necessitates the use of the different language modes and skills (Lwin, 2016; Richards, 2006; Blande & Lutge, 2013). When language and literacy activities follow the reading aloud of a picture book students have the opportunity to use and practise the language featured (grammar and vocabulary). There are a range of speaking, listening, reading, writing and viewing activities that can be introduced to EAL/D students to further develop their story comprehension, memory of the language of the text and to extend their English language learning (Chen & Squires, 2011). For instance, students might describe related personal experiences, ask and answer questions, or retell or dramatise the story. They might write about an element of the story (characters, setting or events) or re-read the story using echo reading or the reader’s theatre strategy. Table 1 below provides an example of a picture book and related activities for EAL/D students.

Lost and Foud book coverTABLE 1: AN EXAMPLE OF A PICTURE STORYBOOK AND RELATED LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES FOR WORKING WITH EAL/D STUDENTS

Lost and Found (Jeffers, 2005)

The story is about a boy who finds a penguin at his door. The boy decides the penguin must be lost and so he tries to help find his home. They eventually set out on a journey to the South Pole.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING

Read Aloud: The teacher reads the story aloud to the students.

Oral retell: The students put pictures depicting the story in correct order and then use these to orally retell the story.

Role play: The students act out precise scenarios from the story using impromptu dialogue.

Barrier Game: The students are provided with a scene from the story and some objects (for example, umbrella, penguin, boy, boat). They place the objects on the scene by following the instructions provided about where to position them.

Oral Description: Provide pairs of students with an illustration from the book and have them construct an oral description of it (provide prompt questions to support this activity).

Character Interview: Students take on the roles of the penguin and boy from the story and carry out an interview in role.

Oral QAR: Students construct (teacher scribes) questions about penguins in relation to the information in the text. They locate where information for answering each question can be found in the text.

Anticipation Guide (before reading): The students read a series of statements and decide which ones they think express what will and won’t occur in the story. The statements are revisited after the reading of the story.

READING AND WRITING

Echo reading: On a second or subsequent reading of the story use the echo reading method to have the students join in with the reading.

Question / Answer Matching: The students match written statements to the questions they answer.

Narrative Pyramid: Create to illustrate characters, settings, and events.

Character Mapping: Record traits of the characters (penguin, boy) and supporting evidence from story.

Reword sections of text: During a re-read stop intermittently to have students orally summarise the section just read in their own words.

Postcard: Write a postcard from penguin to his family back in South Pole. Label a picture of a penguin and write a written description of the penguin in the story using headings provided.

Story Map: Draw and write to illustrate the different story locations and what occurred at each.

Children’s picture books often include dialogue between characters as a means of progressing the story. For EAL/D students the dialogue should be natural and authentic and reflect the personalities of the characters and the features of the context in which it is taking place. In the story ‘Catch that goat!’ (Alakija, 2007), a young girl, Ayoka, has lost the family goat. In an effort to find it she visits the market next to her home and asks different stall holders if they have seen it. As she talks to the stall holders she learns that the goat has been causing a lot of trouble and been taking things from the different stalls. The dialogue involves Ayoka asking each stall holder about her goat; at the paint stall she asks, ‘Baba Akinade have you seen my goat?’ to which the stall holder replies, ‘No Ayoka but one of my paint pots is missing.’ The dialogue in picturebooks provides an opportunity similar to listening in on other people’s conversations. With dialogue EAL/D students have the chance to notice how language is used between people (characters) to achieve communicative purposes; for example to notice how likes and dislikes are expressed or how language is used to find something out, to offer an apology, to introduce someone or to give a reason for something occurring. They have the opportunity to notice how vocabulary and grammar are used in relation to language function (Chen, 2012) and how language might be adapted to suit the features of social and cultural context in which it takes place.

Related text

PETAA PAPER 197 — Responding to literature: Talking about books in Literature Circles, by Alyson Simpson

Teacher and small groupSmall group experiences provide important language learning contexts for EAL/D students

EAL/D students’ English language learning is supported by the use of small groups learning experiences. This is because students have more opportunties to talk in a small group than in a large whole-class group and group members who speak English as a first language can provide useful English language models. Additionally, the small numbers in the group means EAL/D students are less likely to feel anxious about taking risks in their use of English language and they would likely find it easier and less intimidating to ask for repetition or to request clarification when something said has not been understood (Peragoy & Boyle, 2013).

LITERATURE CIRCLES

The Literature Circles strategy is a small group experience using children’s literature that is suitable for use with EAL/D students. It involves small groups of students getting together to discuss particular picture books or other types of children’s literature. With its focus on the small group learning context, children’s literature and consideration of students’ backgrounds and interests, it is ideal for EAL/D students.

In Literature Circles each student has the opportunity to choose a text from a small selection which the teacher has carefully chosen in relation to students’ reading ability, interests, knowledge, experiences and culture. Literature Circle groups are formed on the basis of the books chosen by students.

EAL/D students that share a common first language might place themselves together in a Literature Circle group so they can use their first language to prepare for a group meeting and to interact together to consolidate understanding during the discussion. They might be provided with their chosen text written in their first language as well as English. Once groups have been formed students independently read their books and prepare for group meetings to discuss the book. For EAL/D students reading support might require having the teacher read the book to them or being first shown films based on the book. Echo reading or paired reading might be used and books in students’ first language might be made available.

Often students in a group assume specific roles that will guide their preparation for and participation in the group meetings; for instance, one student might prepare questions or topics that will serve to spur the group discussion. Another student might visually represent interesting sections of the story. Another might write a short written summary and yet another student might record interesting words from the story (Fellowes & Oakley, 2014). A role supportive of EAL/D students’ English language development would be that of language observer. This role would involve noting unfamiliar vocabulary and grammatical patterns.

The roles in Literature Circles are flexible and should be adapted to suit the age and ability of the students.

Literature Circles involve students engaging in meaningful discussions about picture books or other types of children’s literature. They enable students to engage with literature in a way that facilitates story comprehension and strengthens communication skills (Carroll & Sambolin Morales, 2015). Literature Circles should provide a low-anxiety language learning context for EAL/D students that promotes their understanding of a text and fosters their critical thinking, reading and writing ability as well as their oral communication skills.

2 — Effective language learning for EAL/D students requires they receive comprehensible language input

In order to learn a language it is necessary for students to have sufficient exposure to the language in question. They need to receive what is known as language input (Krashen, 1982). The basic tenet is that students acquire a language when they are exposed to that language. But there is more to it. The language students are exposed to needs to be at a level just above their current level of competency (Brown, 2007). Krashen refers to this as i + 1. The ‘i’ denotes the language that students already know and understand and the ‘1’ denotes the new, unfamiliar elements (grammar and vocabulary). It is this exposure to the unfamiliar elements of the language that provide the potential for improvement.

Language input that is understood by students is referred to as comprehensible input (Krashen, 1982). Students need comprehensible input so that they may associate the forms of the language with its meaning. This is necessary if the language input is to be assigned to long term memory and recalled for future use. Comprehensible language input along with social interaction is considered to be a highly influential feature of the language learning process (Long, 1996). It has a positive bearing on students’ use of language.

In the EAL/D classroom an important and readily available source of English language input comes from the teacher. Of course, for it to be useful to students’ language learning it needs to be delivered in a manner that ensures understanding; for instance, it might involve a slower rate of talk, clearer articulation, longer pauses and the use of high frequency vocabulary (Gass & Selinker, 2008).

The picture book is another reliable source of language input and when choosing them for working with EAL/D students, teachers need to consider their students’ current English language proficiency. To follow a storyline students need to apply their attention, comprehension and memory. It can place heavy cognitive and linguistic demands on them. (Peragoy & Boyle, 2008).

The picture books need to readily allow students to identify meaning and they should contain grammatical structures and vocabulary slightly beyond what is already known. Students should be able to understand most of the story but still be challenged so they might progress (Brown, 2007). Table 2 below outlines factors to be considered when choosing books to use with EAL/D students. It is important to adjust the choices of text used in the classroom as students’ English language competency progresses. Selected texts should match students’ language levels and ability to comprehend plot complexity.

TABLE 2: A FRAMEWORK FOR SELECTING PICTURE BOOKS FOR EAL/D STUDENTS

Source: Adapted from: Heatherington, 1985; Vardell, Hadaway and Young, 2006; Chen, 2014; Chen & Squires, 2011; the British Council. 2014

CONTENT AND STORYLINE

  • To what extent does the picture book align with what students already know about the culture in which the language to be learned is situated?
  • To what extent does the picture book relate to students’ own culture?
  • How relevant is the story to students’ experiences, interests or issues with which they are concerned?
  • Is the topic of the story age appropriate thus providing an appropriate level of cognitive challenge?
  • Do the students have enough knowledge of the topic to comprehend the story?
  • Does the book clearly function to entertain?
  • Is the storyline relatively linear and uncomplicated?

LANGUAGE (GENERAL)

  • Is the language of the picture book authentic (rather than controlled and stilted for the purpose of grammar teaching)?
  • Is the language of the picture book slightly above what the students’ could understand without assistance?
  • Does the language of the picture book avoid outdated language, slang or colloquial expressions?
  • Does the language of the picture book use regular language patterns?
  • Is there any repetition of phrases or refrains?
  • Does the language of the picture book provide good models of language in use?
  • Is there an appropriate level of written language on each page (for beginners it would be brief)?
  • Is the sequence of events clear? Are time references used or might they be added?
  • Are ideas and clearly explained – not too narrative dense?
  • Is their use of dialogue between characters?

LANGUAGE (SENTENCES)

  • Consider the following features of the sentence structures in relation to students’ current level of language proficiency. (Bear in mind where some aspects could be simplified in the reading aloud of the storybook to students).
  • Length and complexity of the sentences
  • Types of sentence structures — simple, compound, complex
  • Type and consistency of the tense
  • Degree to which the sentence structures (word order) reflect commonly used every day talk (or the narrative text)
  • Variety of sentence structures
  • Clarity of meaning
  • Linking words to show relationship between sentences
  • Use of repeated grammatical structures

    LANGUAGE (VOCABULARY)

    • Are there a variety of new content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs) that will contribute to students’ vocabulary development?
    • Are there too many content words that will be unfamiliar to students?
    • Is the meaning of new or unfamiliar words supported by the context or visuals or easily able to be made comprehensible?

    ILLUSTRATIONS

    • Do the illustrations correspond with the written language?
    • Do the illustrations support students in understanding the story?
    • Do the illustrations help clarify word meanings?
    • Are they clear and able to be seen by the students?
    • Are the illustrations authentic in relation to the culture being represented?
    • Are the visuals appropriate to the age of the students?

    3 — Effective language learning for EAL/D students requires consideration of affective factors

    Students’ success with acquiring EAL/D is influenced by certain aspects of their emotion. When they lack self confidence, are anxious about certain elements of the learning process or have a negative attitude to learning English they are less likely to embrace language learning experiences (Sheen, 2008) and their language acquisition and learning are less likely to flourish. When students are pressured to produce language their anxiety levels increase (Effiong, 2016; Sheen, 2008; Horwitz, 2001; Krashen, 1998).

    Krashen’s affective filter hypothesis (1985) provides some degree of explanation for this phenomenon. When language learners feel stressed or anxious or lack confidence they employ their affective filter which serves as a barrier to language input. A high affective filter prevents the acquisition of language (Lightbown & Spada, 2006). On the other hand, students’ language acquisition is enhanced when their affective filter is low. This is dependent on them feeling confident as language learners and being in a low stress, low anxiety language learning environment.

    The reading aloud of picture books to EAL/D students provides them with a context for learning English that is without the stress-inducing qualities that tends to result in high affective filters (Hemmati, Gholamrezapour & Hessamy, 2015; Chen, 2014). Students’ anxiety is alleviated because they become absorbed by the narrative of the story rather than focused on the grammatical features of its language (Hsiu-Chih, 2008). They attend to what is happening to the characters, what is going to happen next and on finding out how the story ends (Hemmati, Gholamrezapour & Hessamy, 2015).

    Picture books serve to increase EAL/D students’ confidence (Chen and Squires, 2011; Hsiu-Chih, 2008; Taylor, 2000 delete ref). When appropriately chosen for the English language classroom the illustrations support story comprehension. Students can largely understand the story even without fully understanding the language of the text.

    4. Effective language learning for EAL/D students requires learning about the culture in which the language takes place

    Language is an intimate part of culture and effective communication requires knowledge of how language is used specific to the culture of the group. It requires knowing the culturally specific ways in which communication between people takes place. (Fellowes & Oakley, 2014).

    Language teaching that aims to develop students’ communicative competence involves assisting them to use language in ways that are appropriate to the cultural group. This involves learning how language use is shaped by social roles and about the rituals and non-verbal behaviours involved in interpersonal communication. (Wee, Park & Choi, 2015; Fellowes & Oakley, 2014).

    I Want my Hat Back coverPicture books provide EAL/D students with encounters with the behaviours and cultural customs used by a society (Wee, Park & Choi, 2015; Shanahan, 1997) and they support them in learning about the culturally specific way that English is used in communicative interactions (Akrofi, Swafford, Janisch, Liu & Durrington, 2008) by a specific group of people. Picture books can serve as the platform for considering and learning from communicative interactions (Akrofi et al., 2008).

    Take for instance, the cultural significance of the use of ‘please’ and ‘thankyou’ in the conversations that occur between characters in the picture story book, I want my hat back (Klassen, 2011).

    Have you seen my hat?
    I haven’t seen anything all day. I have been trying to climb this rock.
    Would you like me to lift you on top of it?
    Yes please.

    Decibella cover… and then later in the story.

    Have you seen my hat?
    No, I have not seen any hats around here.
    Ok, thank you anyway.

    … and ponder the cultural message about appropriate voice tone and volume in different social situations in, Decibella and her 6 inch voice (Cook, 2014). Picture books expose students to communication in action; they provide cultural and language encounters (Shanahan, 1997).

    5 — Effective language learning for EAL/D students requires acknowledgement and use of the student’s first language

    Child reading a pcture book and point to a sentence with a fingerIt is essential that EAL/D students experience books that reflect their own culture. Their identities are affirmed and their sense of belonging is reinforced when the characters and events of picture books emulate their own characteristics, behaviours and values. Picture books that contain characters that students can relate to have bearing on the students’ confidence and motivation and their sense of self is reinforced (Wee, Park & Choi, 2015). Furthermore, when students can associate the events of stories with their own life experiences they are more efficiently able to construct story meaning (Fang, 1996).

    Additionally, EAL/D students benefit from picture books that are written in their first language or dialect or in both English and their first language or dialect. Such a practice serves to acknowledge the importance of students’ first language and of the role it plays in their language and literacy development.

    Picture books are a valuable classroom resource for working with EAL/ D students. When they are astutely chosen and read aloud to students and when they are used as the vehicle for further literacy experiences, they provide a valuable opportunity for English language learning and development. They provide contexts for the learning of English vocabulary and grammar and for understanding the practical use of English for different communicative purposes. Importantly, the themes, stories and illustrations of picture books can influence students’ motivation for learning English.

    TABLE 3: SOME EXAMPLES OF MULTICULTURAL PICTURE BOOKS

    Kite Flying coverKite Flying (LIN, 2004)

    The family decide to make a kite; they make a trip to the craft store for paper, glue, and paint. Everyone has a job to do — Ma-Ma joins sticks together. Ba-Ba glues paper. Mei-Mei cuts whiskers and Jie- Jie paints a laughing mouth. Dragon eyes and a noise maker are added. Now their dragon kite is ready to fly.

    Dim Sum for Everyone coverDim Sum For Everyone (LIN, 2003)

    On a visit to a bustling dim sum restaurant, a family picks their favorite dishes from the steaming trolleys filled with dumplings, cakes, buns, and tarts. And as is traditional they share their food with each other so that everyone gets a bite of everything.

    Ramadan Moon coverRamadan Moon (ROBERT, 2009)

    This book looks at the festival of Ramadan and its celebration across the world. It looks at the role faith plays in many children’s lives.

    So Much, coverSo Much (COOKE, 2008)

    Mum and baby are home alone when Auntie and then Uncle and Nannie and Gran- Gran and the cousins come to visit. And they all want to hug and kiss and squeeze and eat the baby right up -because everybody loves the baby.

    Mirror, front coverMirror (BAKER, 2010)

    The book shows a day in the lives of two boys and their families — one from inner city Sydney, Australia and the other from a small, remote village in Morocco, North Africa. They live very different lives but come to realize that there are many things the same about their homes and daily routines. Access the Global Words unit that includes activities for this book.

    Mei Ling's Hiccups coverMei Ling’s Hiccups (MILLS, 2000)

    Mei Ling gets the hiccups during a class party. Her classmates try to help with different advice they’ve learned in their families but her hiccups keep coming back. The story is about the many ways different communities approach a common problem.

    Catch That Goat, coverCatch That Goat (ALAKIJA, 2001)

    The story is set in Nigeria. Ayoka has been left in charge of the family goat, but within minutes it has vanished! As Ayoka searches the markets she learns how much trouble the runaway goat is causing. One thing after another disappears from the market stalls. The goat is finally found.

    The Name Jar, coverThe Name Jar (CHOI, 2003)

    Unhei has just moved from Korea and nobody can pronounce her name and so she decides to choose a new name. Her classmates fill a glass jar with names for her to choose from but her real name has special meaning. So she keeps it and teaches others how to pronounce it.

    References

    About the author

    Janet Fellowes is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Education at Edith Cowan University (ECU) where she teaches language and literacy. She is the co-author (with Grace Oakley) of the PETAA publication, A closer look at spelling in the primary classroom, as well as the university text book, Language, literacy and early childhood education. Prior to working at ECU, Janet spent fifteen years working as a classroom teacher across a wide range of settings and age groups. Many of her years teaching involved working with children who spoke English as an Additional Language (EAL). Janet works closely with schools and classroom teachers; her research work is directly linked to the early childhood and primary classroom and has comprised such topics as teacher efficacy and the teaching of English as an additional language, writing in kindergarten and pre-primary, oral language and thinking and boys and literacy. Janet is passionate about ensuring that teachers are knowledgeable about, and inspired by, language and literacy teaching and learning, and that they understand how to best enhance the language learning of children for whom English is an additional language.

    How this content relates to AITSL teacher standards

    Coming soon. Watch this space for the relevant professional teacher standards for PETAA Paper 210, with links to illustrations of practice videos on the AITSL website

    Standard 1: Know students and how they learn

    • 1.2.1 Graduate Understand how students learn. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of research into how students learn and the implications for teaching.
    • 1.2.2 Proficient Understand how students learn. Structure teaching programs using research and collegial advice about how students learn.
    • 1.3.1 Graduate Students with diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds. Demonstrate knowledge of teaching strategies that are responsive to the learning strengths and needs of students from diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds.
    • 1.3.2 Proficient Students with diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds. Design and implement teaching strategies that are responsive to the learning strengths and needs of students from diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds.

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Formative assessment of students emerging understanding and teaching accordingly

    • 1.4.1 Graduate Strategies for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. Demonstrate broad knowledge and understanding of the impact of culture, cultural identity and linguistic background on the education of students from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander backgrounds.
    • 1.4.2 Proficient Strategies for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. Design and implement effective teaching strategies that are responsive to the local community and cultural setting, linguistic background and histories of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students.

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using printwalk for developing pronoun knowledge and comprehension with culturally appropriate texts

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Girls Writing Club — providing additional writing support

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using Dreaming stories to scaffold comprehension and stimulate writing

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Deconstructing narrative structure to support oral language skills

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using local language to support learning about adjectives

    Standard 2: Know the content and how to teach it

    • 2.1.1 Graduate Content and teaching strategies of the teaching area. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the concepts, substance and structure of the content and teaching strategies of the teaching area.

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Developing detailed content knowledge of subject area — text detail and analysis in English

    • 2.1.2 Proficient Content and teaching strategies of the teaching area. Apply knowledge of the content and teaching strategies of the teaching area to develop engaging teaching activities.

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using a Dictagloss to support EAL/D students

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Building the field in science to assist students to make connections

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Developing social media profiles to build and represent content knowledge in geography

    • 2.5.1 Graduate Literacy and numeracy strategies. Know and understand literacy and numeracy teaching strategies and their application in teaching areas.

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Modelling recount writing and creating text adaptations using technology

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Strategies for developing early literacy and numeracy skills

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Developing critical reading skills using the SQ3R method

    • 2.5.2 Proficient Literacy and numeracy strategies. Apply knowledge and understanding of effective teaching strategies to support students’ literacy and numeracy achievement.

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Improving Sentence Structure knowledge using oral language in Year 1

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using storyboards to develop multimodal texts

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Achieving multiple literacy outcomes through developing and composing multimodal texts

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Developing early literacy through explicit connections between meaning in text, oral language and image

    Standard 3: Plan for and implement effective teaching and learning

    • 3.3.1 Graduate Use teaching strategies. Include a range of teaching strategies.
    • 3.3.2 Proficient Use teaching strategies. Select and use relevant teaching strategies to develop knowledge, skills, problem solving and critical and creative thinking.
    • 3.4.1 Graduate Select and use resources. Demonstrate knowledge of a range of resources, including ICT, that engage students in their learning.

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using group work and technologies to enhance learning in a primary English classroom

    • 3.4.2 Proficient Select and use resources. Select and/or create and use a range of resources, including ICT, to engage students in their learning.

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using ICT and other resources to differentiate group work when learning about figurative language in writing

    • 3.5.1 Graduate Use effective classroom communication. Demonstrate a range of verbal and non-verbal communication strategies to support student engagement.
    • 3.5.2 Proficient Use effective classroom communication. Use effective verbal and non-verbal communication strategies to support student understanding, participation, engagement and achievement.

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using a variety of tools to effectively communicate with students in an early primary classroom

    Standard 4: Create and maintain supportive and safe learning environments

    • 4.1.1 Graduate Support student participation Identify strategies to support inclusive student participation and engagement in classroom activities

    AITSL Illustration or Practice: Approaching differentiation in the early weeks

    • 4.1.2 Proficient Support student participation. Establish and implement inclusive and positive interactions to engage and support all students in class activities.

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Differentiating language access to engage a variety of students in learning

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using drama and performance based approaches to explore and engage with texts

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Using music to support inclusion and language development in early learners

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Holistic care to support learning

    Standard 6: Engage in professional learning

    • 6.2.1 Graduate Engage in professional learning and improve practice. Understand the relevant and appropriate sources of professional learning for teachers.

    Illustration of Practice: Using professional learning to improve teaching with ICT resources

    • 6.2.2 Proficient Engage in professional learning and improve practice. Participate in learning to update knowledge and practice, targeted to professional needs and school and/or system priorities.
    • 6.4.1 Graduate Apply professional learning and improve student learning. Demonstrate an understanding of the rationale for continued professional learning and the implications for improved student learning.

    AITSL Illustration of Practice: Seeking professional learning

    • 6.4.2 Proficient Apply professional learning and improve student learning. Undertake professional learning programs designed to address identified student learning needs.